Cultural peer learning (CPL)
There are 3 typological understandings of cultural peer‐to‐peer learning that we share within the CULPEER FOR INTEGRATION project:
- an educational technique of involving peers in teaching and learning desired cultural skills (theatre, music, writing, art, performance, dance, language, circus, acrobatics, e‐based art techniques, combined performances)
- involving peers into learning about different cultures
- involving peers of different cultural backgrounds into learning desired cultural competencies AND intercultural competencies.
Formal learning, which is typically provided by education or training institution, with structured learning objectives, learning time and learning support. It is intentional on the part of the learner and leads to certification.
Inclusion adds to the social integration concept a further just relation of mutual influence between the person and the environment.
Informal learning, which results from daily activities related to work, family life or leisure. It is not structured and usually does not lead to certification. In most cases, it is unintentional on the part of the learner.
Non‐formal learning, which is not provided by an education or training institution and typically does not lead to certification. However, it is intentional on the part of the learner and has structured objectives, duration and support.
Related to poverty, but going far beyond, including deprivation not only from material goods but also from non-material, eventually leading to "social, economic and political marginalisation". The above mentioned includes:
- poor living conditions (housing, nutrition, clothing)
- poor conditions related to health and difficulties in accessing health care
- obstacles in participating in the public social and/or political life
- obstacles in enjoying cultural activities
- a sense of isolation from a community, on emotionally and psychologically
Social integration represents "the process, through which an individual becomes a part of a social system, accepting the values that define the normative order (..) through the conveyance of cultural models and dominant behaviour patterns provided by family school and primary groups" . According to such understandings however, the idea of integration is a concept, which can be related to "assimilation" (which does not entail the mutual exchange), that according to Castle and Miller: "can perpetuate the sense of marginalization and conflict" . According to what is stated by the Common Basic Principles for immigrant integration Policy in the EU, integration is ‘a dynamic, two-way process of mutual accommodation by all immigrants and residents of Member States' , accompanied by respect for the basic values of the European Union on the one hand and guaranteeing the practice of diverse cultures and religions under the Charter of Fundamental Rights on the other hand.